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Lily Wu, M.D., Ph.D.

   
Professor, Molecular & Medical Pharmacology
Associate Professor, Pediatrics, Urology
Member, CTSI, California NanoSystems Institute, JCCC Cancer Molecular Imaging, JCCC Genitourinary Oncology Program Area, Molecular Pharmacology GPB Home Area, Molecular, Cellular & Integrative Physiology GPB Home Area
Investigator, Workforce Development

Education:
Degrees:
M.D., David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, 1982 - 1989
Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles, 1982 - 1989
B.A., University of California, Berkeley, 1978 - 1982

Honors and Awards:
Phi Beta Kappa, UC Berkeley, Member
1994 - 1997 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Postdoctoral Fellowship for Physician

Professional Societies:
American Association for the Advancement of Science
American Society of Hematology
American Medical Association
American Association for Cancer Research
American Academy of Pediatrics
American Society of Gene Therapy

Contact Information:
Work Email Address: lwu@mednet.ucla.edu
Laboratory Address: Laboratory
10833 Le Conte Ave.
CHS 33-142
Los Angeles, CA 90095
UNITED STATES
Work Address: UCLA Mol & Medl Pharmacol
33-118 CHS
Los Angeles, CA 90095
UNITED STATES
Home Page: http://www.cancer.ucla.edu/index.aspx?page=645&recordid=282
ARR Papers: http://www.cnsi.ucla.edu/arr/personnel-papers?personnel_id=45568
Fax Number: (310) 794-4759
(310) 825-3027 Fax
Office Phone Number: (310)794-4390 Office
Lab Number: (310) 825-8511 Laboratory
Additional Information:

Lily Wu is a biomedical research scientist focused on developing cancer-targeted therapy. Dr. Wu has been a faculty member of the Department of Urology since 1998, and she holds joint appointments in the Department of Molecular & Medical Pharmacology and the Department of Pediatrics. Dr. Wu earned her B.S. degrees in Biochemistry and Physiology at University of California, Berkeley in 1982. She graduated in 1989 as a member of the inaugural class of Medical Scientist Training Program (M.D., Ph.D program) at UCLA. Her current research topic of gene-based cancer therapy was initiated with the support of a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Postdoctoral Fellowship for Physicians in 1994. Her diverse education training ranges from clinical disciplines of pediatrics and hematology/oncology to molecular and cellular fields such as adenovirus biology, transcription regulation, and gene therapy. Besides her research endeavors, a major part of her effort involves mentoring students at all levels, from undergraduates, graduate, postdoctoral fellows to clinical residents. Her diverse background creates a fertile ground for the interdisciplinary approaches she has taken in her research. Her main goal is to deliver safe, effective, and targeted treatment to cancer patients.

Selected Publications:

Pouliot Frédéric, Sato Makoto, Jiang Ziyue Karen, Huyn Steve, Karanikolas Breanne Dw, Wu Lily, A molecular imaging system based on both transcriptional and genomic amplification to detect prostate cancer cells in vivo, Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy, 2013, 21 (3), 554-60.
Xu Jingying, Escamilla Jemima, Mok Stephen, David John, Priceman Saul, West Brian, Bollag Gideon, McBride William, Wu Lily, CSF1R Signaling Blockade Stanches Tumor-Infiltrating Myeloid Cells and Improves the Efficacy of Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer, Cancer research, 2013, 73 (9), 2782-94.
Jiang Ziyue Karen, Koh Sok Boon S, Sato Makoto, Atanasov Ivo C, Johnson Mai, Zhou Z Hong, Deming Timothy J, Wu Lily, Engineering polypeptide coatings to augment gene transduction and in vivo stability of adenoviruses, Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society, 2013, 166 (1), 75-85.
Jiang Ziyue Karen, Sato Makoto, Wu Lily, Chapter five--The development of transcription-regulated adenoviral vectors with high cancer-selective imaging capabilities, Advances in cancer research, 2012, 115 (15), 115-46.
He Huanhuan, Xu Jingying, Warren Carmen M, Duan Dan, Li Xinmin, Wu Lily, Iruela-Arispe M Luisa, Endothelial cells provide an instructive niche for the differentiation and functional polarization of M2-like macrophages, Blood, 2012, 120 (15), 3152-62.
Wu Lily, Grigoryan Arsen V, Li Yunfeng, Hao Bing, Pagano Michele, Cardozo Timothy J, Specific small molecule inhibitors of Skp2-mediated p27 degradation, Chemistry & biology, 2012, 19 (12), 1515-24.
Chen Kuan-Ju, Wolahan Stephanie M, Wang Hao, Hsu Chao-Hsiung, Chang Hsing-Wei, Durazo Armando, Hwang Lian-Pin, Garcia Mitch A, Jiang Ziyue K, Wu Lily, Lin Yung-Ya, Tseng Hsian-Rong, A small MRI contrast agent library of gadolinium(III)-encapsulated supramolecular nanoparticles for improved relaxivity and sensitivity, Biomaterials, 2011, 32 (8), 2160-5.
Jiang Ziyue Karen, Sato Makoto, Wei Liu H, Kao Chinghai, Wu Lily, Androgen-independent molecular imaging vectors to detect castration-resistant and metastatic prostate cancer, Cancer research, 2011, 71 (19), 6250-60.
Liu Hongrong, Wu Lily, Zhou Z Hong, Model of the trimeric fiber and its interactions with the pentameric penton base of human adenovirus by cryo-electron microscopy, Journal of molecular biology, 2011, 406 (5), 764-74.
Narasimha Ajay J, Watanabe Junji, Ishikawa Tomo-o, Priceman Saul J, Wu Lily, Herschman Harvey R, Reddy Srinivasa T, Absence of myeloid COX-2 attenuates acute inflammation but does not influence development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E null mice, Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology, 2010, 30 (2), 260-8.
Hongrong Liu, Lei Jin, Sok Boon S. Koh, Ivo Atanasov, Stan Schein, Lily Wu, Z. Hong Zhou, Atomic Structure of Human Adenovirus by Cryo-EM Reveals Interactions Among Protein Networks, Science, 2010, 329 (5995), 1038-1043.
Liu Hongrong, Jin Lei, Koh Sok Boon S, Atanasov Ivo, Schein Stan, Wu Lily, Zhou Z Hong, Atomic structure of human adenovirus by cryo-EM reveals interactions among protein networks, Science (New York, N.Y.), 2010, 329 (5995), 1038-43.
Karanikolas Breanne D W, Figueiredo Marxa L, Wu Lily, Comprehensive evaluation of the role of EZH2 in the growth, invasion, and aggression of a panel of prostate cancer cell lines, The Prostate, 2010, 70 (6), 675-88.
Imaizumi Satoshi, Grijalva Victor, Priceman Saul, Wu Lily, Su Feng, Farias-Eisner Robin, Hama Susan, Navab Mohamad, Fogelman Alan M, Reddy Srinivasa T, Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 deficiency decreases atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E null mice by reducing monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels, Molecular genetics and metabolism, 2010, 101 (1), 66-75.
Priceman SJ, Sung JL, Shaposhnik Z, Burton JB, Torres-Collado T, Moughon D, Johnson M, Cohen DA, Lusis AJ, Iruela-Arispe L, Wu L, Targeting distinct tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells by inhibiting CSF-1 receptor: combating tumor evasion of anti-angiogenic therapy, Blood , 2010, 115 (7), 1461-71.
Priceman Saul J, Sung James L, Shaposhnik Zory, Burton Jeremy B, Torres-Collado Antoni X, Moughon Diana L, Johnson Mai, Lusis Aldons J, Cohen Donald A, Iruela-Arispe M Luisa, Wu Lily, Targeting distinct tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells by inhibiting CSF-1 receptor: combating tumor evasion of antiangiogenic therapy, Blood, 2010, 115 (7), 1461-71.
Ming Yan, Juanjuan Du, Zhen Gu, Min Liang, Yufang Hu, Wenjun Zhang, Saul Priceman, Lily Wu, Z. Hong Zhou, Zheng Liu, Tatiana Segura, Yi Tang, Yunfeng Lu, A novel intracellular protein delivery platform based on single-protein nanocapsules, Nature Nanotechnology, 2009, 5, 48-53.
Huyn Steven T, Burton Jeremy B, Sato Makoto, Carey Michael, Gambhir Sanjiv S, Wu Lily, A potent, imaging adenoviral vector driven by the cancer-selective mucin-1 promoter that targets breast cancer metastasis, Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, 2009, 15 (9), 3126-34.
Huyn, S. T. Burton, J. B. Sato, M. Carey, M. Gambhir, S. S. Wu, L. , A potent, imaging adenoviral vector driven by the cancer-selective mucin-1 promoter that targets breast cancer metastasis, Clin Cancer Res, 2009, 15 (9), 3126-34.
Pouliot F, Johnson M, Wu L, Non-invasive molecular imaging of prostate cancer lymph node metastasis, Trends in Molecular Medicine, 2009, 15, 254-262.
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Karanikolas Breanne D W, Figueiredo Marxa L, Wu Lily, Polycomb group protein enhancer of zeste 2 is an oncogene that promotes the neoplastic transformation of a benign prostatic epithelial cell line, Molecular cancer research : MCR, 2009, 7 (9), 1456-65.
Karanikolas BDW, Figueiredo ML, Wu L, Polycomb group protein enhancer of zeste 2 is an oncogene that promotes the neoplastic transformation of a benign prostatic epithelial cell line. , Molecular Cancer Research , 2009, 7 (9), 1456-1465.
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Johnson Mai, Karanikolas Breanne D W, Priceman Saul J, Powell Russell, Black Margaret E, Wu Hsiao-Ming, Czernin Johannes, Huang Sung-Cheng, Wu Lily, Titration of variant HSV1-tk gene expression to determine the sensitivity of 18F-FHBG PET imaging in a prostate tumor, Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine, 2009, 50 (5), 757-64.
Johnson M, Karanikolas BDW, Priceman SJ, Powell R, Black ME, Wu HM, Czernin J, Huang SC, Wu L, Titration of variant HSV1-tk gene expression to determine the sensitivity of 18F-FHBG PET imaging in a prostate tumor, Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 2009, 50, 757-764.
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Burton, J. B. Johnson, M. Sato, M. Koh, S. B. S. Mulholland, D. J. Stout, D. Chatziioannou, A. F. Phelps, M. E. Wu, H. Wu, L. , Adenovirus-mediated gene expression imaging to directly detect sentinel lymph node metastasis of prostate cancer, Nature Medicine, 2008, 14 (8), 882-888.
Burton Jeremy B, Johnson Mai, Sato Makoto, Koh Sok Boon S, Mulholland David J, Stout David, Chatziioannou Arion F, Phelps Michael E, Wu Hong, Wu Lily, Adenovirus-mediated gene expression imaging to directly detect sentinel lymph node metastasis of prostate cancer, Nature medicine, 2008, 14 (8), 882-8.
Haven Thomas R, Lyons Bradley W, Pasi Brian M, Wu Lily L, Astill Mark E, Hill Harry R, Effect of acetylcholine receptor source on detection and quantification of anti-acetylcholine receptor-binding antibody, Clinical chemistry, 2008, 54 (9), 1580-1.
Ray Sunetra, Paulmurugan Ramasamy, Patel Manish R, Ahn Byeong C, Wu Lily, Carey Michael, Gambhir Sanjiv S, Noninvasive imaging of therapeutic gene expression using a bidirectional transcriptional amplification strategy, Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy, 2008, 16 (11), 1848-56.
Ray, S. Paulmurugan, R. Patel, M. R. Ahn, B. C. Wu, L. Carey, M. Gambhir, S. S. , Noninvasive imaging of therapeutic gene expression using a bidirectional transcriptional amplification strategy, Mol Ther, 2008, 16 (11), 1848-56.
Burton Jeremy B, Priceman Saul J, Sung James L, Brakenhielm Ebba, An Dong Sung, Pytowski Bronislaw, Alitalo Kari, Wu Lily, Suppression of prostate cancer nodal and systemic metastasis by blockade of the lymphangiogenic axis, Cancer research, 2008, 68 (19), 7828-37.
Burton, J. B. Priceman, S. J. Sung, J. L. Brakenhielm, E. An, D. S. Pytowski, B. Alitalo, K. Wu, L. , Suppression of prostate cancer nodal and systemic metastasis by blockade of the lymphangiogenic axis, Cancer Research, 2008, 68 (19), 7828-7837.
Figueireido M, Kao C, Wu L, Advances in preclinical investigation of prostate cancer gene therapy, Mol Ther , 2007, 15 (6), 1053-1064.
Figueiredo Marxa L, Kao Chinghai, Wu Lily, Advances in preclinical investigation of prostate cancer gene therapy, Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy, 2007, 15 (6), 1053-64.
Brakenhielm E, Burton JB, Johnson M, Chavarria N, Morizono K, Chen I, Alitalo K, Wu L. , Modulating metastasis by a lymphangiogenic switch in prostate cancer, International Journal of Cancer, 2007, 121 (10), 2153-2161.
Iyer Meera, Salazar Felix B, Wu Lily, Carey Michael, Gambhir Sanjiv S, Bioluminescence imaging of systemic tumor targeting using a prostate-specific lentiviral vector, Human gene therapy, 2006, 17 (1), 125-32.
Iyer M, Salazar FB, Wu L, Carey M, Gambhir SS, Bioluminescence imaging of systemic tumor targeting using a prostate-specific lentiviral vector, Hum Gene Ther, 2006, 17 (1), 125-32.
Johnson M, Huyn S, Burton JB, Sato M, Wu L, Differential biodistribution of adenoviral vector in vivo as monitored by bioluminescence imaging and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Human Gene Therapy, 2006, 17 (12), 1262-9.
Wang Yanling, Iyer Meera, Annala Alexander, Wu Lily, Carey Michael, Gambhir Sanjiv S, Noninvasive indirect imaging of vascular endothelial growth factor gene expression using bioluminescence imaging in living transgenic mice, Physiological genomics, 2006, 24 (2), 173-80.
Wang Y, Iyer M, Annala A, Wu L, Carey M, Gambhir SS, Noninvasive indirect imaging of vascular endothelial growth factor gene expression using bioluminescence imaging in living transgenic mice, Physiol Genomics, 2006, 24 (2), 173-80.
Figueiredo Marxa L, Sato Makoto, Johnson Mai, Wu Lily, Specific targeting of gene therapy to prostate cancer using a two-step transcriptional amplification system, Future oncology (London, England), 2006, 2 (3), 391-406.
Iyer, M. Sato, M. Johnson, M. Gambhir, S. S. Wu, L. , Applications of molecular imaging in cancer gene therapy, Curr Gene Ther, 2005, 5 (6), 607-18.
Iyer Meera, Sato Makoto, Johnson Mai, Gambhir Sanjiv S, Wu Lily, Applications of molecular imaging in cancer gene therapy, Current gene therapy, 2005, 5 (6), 607-18.
Sato M, Johnson M, Zhang L, Gambhir SS, Carey M, Wu L, Functionality of androgen receptor-based gene expression imaging in hormone refractory prostate cancer, Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. , 2005, 11 (10), 3743-9.
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Sato Makoto, Johnson Mai, Zhang Liqun, Gambhir Sanjiv S, Carey Michael, Wu Lily, Functionality of androgen receptor-based gene expression imaging in hormone refractory prostate cancer, Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, 2005, 11 (10), 3743-9.
Ilagan Romyla, Zhang Liquin Joann, Pottratz Jill, Le Kim, Salas Sussan, Iyer Meera, Wu Lily, Gambhir Sanjiv S, Carey Michael, Imaging androgen receptor function during flutamide treatment in the LAPC9 xenograft model, Molecular cancer therapeutics, 2005, 4 (11), 1662-9.
Ilagan R, Zhang L, Pottratz J, Le K, Salas S, Iyer M, Wu L, Gambhir SS, Carey M, Imaging androgen receptor function during flutamide treatment in the LAPC9 xenograft model, Mol Can Ther, 2005, 4 (11), 1662-9.
Morizono Kouki, Xie Yiming, Ringpis Gene-Errol, Johnson Mai, Nassanian Hoorig, Lee Benhur, Wu Lily, Chen Irvin S Y, Lentiviral vector retargeting to P-glycoprotein on metastatic melanoma through intravenous injection, Nature medicine, 2005, 11 (3), 346-52.
Morizono K, Xie Y, Ringpis G, Johnson M, Nassanian H, Lee B, Wu L, Chen ISY, Lentiviral vector retargeting to P-glycoprotein on metastatic melanoma through intravenous injection, Nature Medicine, 2005, 11 (3), 346-352.
Johnson Mai, Sato Makoto, Burton Jeremy, Gambhir Sanjiv S, Carey Michael, Wu Lily, Micro-PET/CT monitoring of herpes thymidine kinase suicide gene therapy in a prostate cancer xenograft: the advantage of a cell-specific transcriptional targeting approach, Molecular imaging, 2005, 4 (4), 463-72.
Johnson M, Sato M, Burton J, Gambhir SS, Carey M, Wu L, MicroPET/CT monitoring of herpes thymidine kinase suicide gene therapy in a prostate cancer xenograft: the advantage of a cell-specific transcriptional targeting approach, Molecular Imaging, 2005 (4), 463-472.
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Iyer M, Salazar FB, Lewis X, Zhang L, Wu L, Carey M, Gambhir SS, Non-invasive imaging of a transgenic mouse model using a prostate-specific two-step transcriptional amplification strategy, Transgenic Res, 2005, 14 (1), 47-55.
Björndahl Meit A, Cao Renhai, Burton Jeremy B, Brakenhielm Ebba, Religa Piotr, Galter Dagmar, Wu Lily, Cao Yihai, Vascular endothelial growth factor-a promotes peritumoral lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis, Cancer research, 2005, 65 (20), 9261-8.
Bjorndahl MA, Cao R, Burton JB, Brakenhielm E, Religa P, Galter D, Wu L, Cao Y, Vascular endothelial growth factor-a promotes peritumoral lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis, Can Res, 2005, 65 (20), 9261-8.
Iyer Meera, Salazar Felix B, Lewis Xiaoman, Zhang Liqun, Carey Michael, Wu Lily, Gambhir Sanjiv S, Noninvasive imaging of enhanced prostate-specific gene expression using a two-step transcriptional amplification-based lentivirus vector, Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy, 2004, 10 (3), 545-52.
Iyer M, Salazar FB, Lewis X, Zhang L, Carey M, Wu L, Gambhir SS, Noninvasive imaging of enhanced prostate-specific gene expression using a two-step transcriptional amplification-based lentivirus vector, Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. , 2004, 10 (3), 545-52.
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Ray, S. Paulmurugan, R. Hildebrandt, I. Iyer, M. Wu, L. Carey, M. Gambhir, S. S. , Novel bidirectional vector strategy for amplification of therapeutic and reporter gene expression, Hum Gene Ther, 2004, 15 (7), 681-90.
Ray Sunetra, Paulmurugan Ramasamy, Hildebrandt Isabel, Iyer Meera, Wu Lily, Carey Michael, Gambhir Sanjiv S, Novel bidirectional vector strategy for amplification of therapeutic and reporter gene expression, Human gene therapy, 2004, 15 (7), 681-90.
Wu Lily, Sato Makoto, Integrated, molecular engineering approaches to develop prostate cancer gene therapy, Current gene therapy, 2003, 3 (5), 452-67.
Wu L, Sato M, Integrated, molecular engineering approaches to develop prostate cancer gene therapy, Current gene therapy. , 2003, 3 (5), 452-67.
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Zhang Liqun, Johnson Mai, Le Kim H, Sato Makoto, Ilagan Romyla, Iyer Meera, Gambhir Sanjiv S, Wu Lily, Carey Michael, Interrogating androgen receptor function in recurrent prostate cancer, Cancer research, 2003, 63 (15), 4552-60.
Zhang L, Johnson M, Le KH, Sato M, Ilagan R, Iyer M, Gambhir SS, Wu L, Carey M, Interrogating androgen receptor function in recurrent prostate cancer, Cancer research. , 2003, 63 (15), 4552-60.
Sato Makoto, Johnson Mai, Zhang Liqun, Zhang Baohui, Le Kim, Gambhir Sanjiv S, Carey Michael, Wu Lily, Optimization of adenoviral vectors to direct highly amplified prostate-specific expression for imaging and gene therapy, Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy, 2003, 8 (5), 726-37.
Sato M, Johnson M, Zhang L, Zhang B, Le K, Gambhir SS, Carey M, Wu L, Optimization of adenoviral vectors to direct highly amplified prostate-specific expression for imaging and gene therapy, Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. , 2003, 8 (5), 726-37.
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Inubushi Masayuki, Wu Joseph C, Gambhir Sanjiv S, Sundaresan Gobalakrishnan, Satyamurthy Nagichettiar, Namavari Mohammad, Yee Simon, Barrio Jorge R, Stout David, Chatziioannou Arion F, Wu Lily, Schelbert Heinrich R, Positron-emission tomography reporter gene expression imaging in rat myocardium, Circulation, 2003, 107 (2), 326-32.
Wu L, Johnson M, Sato M, Transcriptionally targeted gene therapy to detect and treat cancer, Trends in molecular medicine. , 2003, 9 (10), 421-9.
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Wu Lily, Johnson Mai, Sato Makoto, Transcriptionally targeted gene therapy to detect and treat cancer, Trends in molecular medicine, 2003, 9 (10), 421-9.
Zhang Liqun, Adams Jason Yeates, Billick Erika, Ilagan Romyla, Iyer Meera, Le Kim, Smallwood Andrea, Gambhir Sanjiv S, Carey Michael, Wu Lily, Molecular engineering of a two-step transcription amplification (TSTA) system for transgene delivery in prostate cancer, Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy, 2002, 5 (3), 223-32.
Zhang L, Adams JY, Billick E, Ilagan R, Iyer M, Le K, Smallwood A, Gambhir SS, Carey M, Wu L, Molecular engineering of a two-step transcription amplification (TSTA) system for transgene delivery in prostate cancer, Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. , 2002, 5 (3), 223-32.
Pantuck Allan J, Matherly Jamie, Zisman Amnon, Nguyen David, Berger Frank, Gambhir Sanjiv S, Black Margaret E, Belldegrun Arie, Wu Lily, Optimizing prostate cancer suicide gene therapy using herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase active site variants, Human gene therapy, 2002, 13 (7), 777-89.
Pantuck AJ, Matherly J, Zisman A, Nguyen D, Berger F, Gambhir SS, Black ME, Belldegrun A, Wu L, Optimizing prostate cancer suicide gene therapy using herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase active site variants, Human gene therapy. , 2002, 13 (7), 777-89.
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Adams JY, Sato M, Johnson M, Berger F, Gambhir S S, Carey M, Iruela-Arispe ML, Wu L., Visualization of advanced human prostate cancer lesions in living mice by a targeted gene transfer vector and optical imaging, Nature Medicine, 2002, August, 8, 8, 891-896.
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Adams Jason Y, Johnson Mai, Sato Makoto, Berger Frank, Gambhir Sanjiv S, Carey Michael, Iruela-Arispe M Luisa, Wu Lily, Visualization of advanced human prostate cancer lesions in living mice by a targeted gene transfer vector and optical imaging, Nature medicine, 2002, 8 (8), 891-7.
Yaghoubi, S. S. Wu, L. Liang, Q. Toyokuni, T. Barrio, J. R. Namavari, M. Satyamurthy, N. Phelps, M. E. Herschman, H. R. Gambhir, S. S. , Direct correlation between positron emission tomographic images of two reporter genes delivered by two distinct adenoviral vectors, Gene Ther, 2001, 8 (14), 1072-80.
Iyer, M. Wu, L. Carey, M. Wang, Y. Smallwood, A. Gambhir, S. S. , Two-step transcriptional amplification as a method for imaging reporter gene expression using weak promoters, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2001, 98 (25), 14595-600.